Oppositions in Toponymy
The paper is focused on semantic oppositions occurring in both settlement and non-settlement names from the territory of Bohemia. The “oppositions” are understood more broadly, comprising not only the antonymic semantic relationship, but including all distinctive toponymic elements (typically distinctive attributes, but also, for example, distinguishing components in compound names). We will analyse the individual elements both formally (indicating their role on the syntactic and/or word-formation level) and semantically (the semantic analysis will include also the account of the type of “opposition”, distinguishing especially between the antonymic relationship and the other types of semantic relationships). The typical semantic relationships expressed by the pairs of distinctive elements refer most often to the extent, position, colour, age or owner of the named object. However, we will devote a great deal of attention also to some less typical cases of oppositions, for example pairs of distinctive elements in compound place names based on the original nicknames of inhabitants.