Testing Analysis of Freezing Phenomenon in Conventional Carbon Steel Pipes
Rezvani Rad, Milad
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Solidification of water in closed piping systems is a common phenomenon in both the industrial and residential sectors. In some cases, the resulting damage may be both costly and dangerous and thus warrants attention. Therefore, further study of the cooling and freezing behavior of stagnant water within closed pipes seems to be necessary. In this regard, several experiments were performed to investigate the freezing behavior of water in pipes. The inelastic deformation, work hardening, and fracture of the pipes that were caused by volume expansion due to the freezing of the water were also studied. Two conventional steel pipe materials, namely ASTM A333-6 and ASTM A106-B, were used in the freezing tests. The fracture surfaces of the pipes were analyzed by using both macroscale and microscale images of the surfaces. Fractography analysis of the fractured regions was also performed by using a scanning electron microscope. It was found that the damage caused during freezing to the A106-B pipe was considerably more than that in the A333-6 pipe. The results confirm that A333-6 should be used instead of A106-B in pressure equipment, such as pipes, that are exposed to low temperatures.