Factor structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in individuals with advanced cancer
Flora, D. B.
Cribbie, R. A.
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Although the Beck Hopelessness Scale is often used with the seriously ill, its factor structure has been given relatively little consideration in this context. The factor structure of this scale was examined in a sample of 406 ambulatory patients with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer, using a sequential exploratory confirmatory factor analysis procedure. A two-factor model was consistent with the data: The first factor reflected a negative outlook and was labeled ‘negative expectations’; the second factor identified a sense of resignation and was labeled ‘loss of motivation.’ Implications regarding scoring of the scale in this population are discussed, as are implications of the two-factor structure for our understanding of hopelessness in individuals with advanced cancer.