A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences on Delay of Gratification and Temporal Discounting Tasks in ADHD and Typically Developing Populations
Doidge, Joshua Leon
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Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards compared to Typically Developing (TD) individuals. Currently it is unknown if males and females with ADHD differ in their preferences for delayed rewards, although females and males with ADHD appear to manifest differences in symptoms as well as in other cognitive and emotional domains. We used meta-analytic methods to examine gender differences on delay of gratification and temporal discounting tasks in both TD and ADHD samples. There were no differences between TD males and TD females, but males with ADHD were more likely to choose the larger delayed rewards than females with ADHD. These findings indicate a dissimilar pattern of gender differences for those with ADHD compared with TD samples. Implications of our findings are also discussed.