Continuous Modeling of 3D Building Rooftops From Airborne LIDAR and Imagery
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In recent years, a number of mega-cities have provided 3D photorealistic virtual models to support the decisions making process for maintaining the cities' infrastructure and environment more effectively. 3D virtual city models are static snap-shots of the environment and represent the status quo at the time of their data acquisition. However, cities are dynamic system that continuously change over time. Accordingly, their virtual representation need to be regularly updated in a timely manner to allow for accurate analysis and simulated results that decisions are based upon. The concept of "continuous city modeling" is to progressively reconstruct city models by accommodating their changes recognized in spatio-temporal domain, while preserving unchanged structures. However, developing a universal intelligent machine enabling continuous modeling still remains a challenging task. Therefore, this thesis proposes a novel research framework for continuously reconstructing 3D building rooftops using multi-sensor data. For achieving this goal, we first proposes a 3D building rooftop modeling method using airborne LiDAR data. The main focus is on the implementation of an implicit regularization method which impose a data-driven building regularity to noisy boundaries of roof planes for reconstructing 3D building rooftop models. The implicit regularization process is implemented in the framework of Minimum Description Length (MDL) combined with Hypothesize and Test (HAT). Secondly, we propose a context-based geometric hashing method to align newly acquired image data with existing building models. The novelty is the use of context features to achieve robust and accurate matching results. Thirdly, the existing building models are refined by newly proposed sequential fusion method. The main advantage of the proposed method is its ability to progressively refine modeling errors frequently observed in LiDAR-driven building models. The refinement process is conducted in the framework of MDL combined with HAT. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MDMC) coupled with Simulated Annealing (SA) is employed to perform a global optimization. The results demonstrates that the proposed continuous rooftop modeling methods show a promising aspects to support various critical decisions by not only reconstructing 3D rooftop models accurately, but also by updating the models using multi-sensor data.