Ghanaian immigrants in Toronto use their churches not only for spiritual support, but also to form social networks and affirm their cultural identity. Racism causes some immigrants to turn to religion – which, in turn, can create ethnic enclaves that further isolate immigrants from other Canadians.
Mensah, J. (2009). 'Doing religion' overseas: The characteristics and functions of Ghanaian immigrant churches in Toronto, Canada. Societies Without Borders, 4(1), 21-44.