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dc.contributor.authorDavis, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorCohen, Alina
dc.contributor.authorDavids, Mark
dc.contributor.authorRabindranath, Alex
dc.identifier.citationDavis C, Cohen A, Davids M and Rabindranath A (2015) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in relation to addictive behaviors: a moderated-mediation analysis of personality-risk factors and sex. Front. Psychiatry 6:47. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00047en_US
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Research has shown that those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk for addiction disorders like alcoholism and substance abuse. What is less clear is the mechanism(s) whereby ADHD gives rise to increased engagement in addictive behaviors, and whether there are sex differences in the ADHD-addiction propensity. Both ADHD and addictions have also been associated with personality traits such as impulsivity, reward seeking, anxiousness, and negative affect. In this study, we tested a moderator-mediation model, which predicted that both sex and ADHD-symptom status would make independent contributions to the variance in personality risk and in addictive behaviors, with males, and those with diagnosed ADHD, scoring higher on both dependent variables. Our model also predicted that the effect of sex and ADHD-symptom status on addictive behaviors would be via the mediating or intervening influence of personality-risk factors. Methods: A community-based sample of young men and women took part in the study. Among these individuals, 46 had received a lifetime diagnosis of ADHD. The nondiagnosed participants were dichotomized into a high-ADHD-symptom group (n D83) and a low-symptom group (nD84). Results: We found that a high-risk personality profile may, in part, account for the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and the use/abuse of a broad range of addictive behaviors. However, we found no sex differences in personality risk for addiction or in the use of addictive behaviors; nor did sex moderate the relationships we assessed. Conclusion: While ADHD status showed a strong relationship with both dependent variables in the model, we found no difference between those who had been diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulants, and their high-symptom non-diagnosed/ non-treated counterparts. These results add support to claims that the treatment of ADHD with stimulant medication neither protects nor fosters the risk for substance abuse disorders.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen_US
dc.rightsThis Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. It is reproduced with permission.en_US
dc.subjectAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorderen_US
dc.subjectAddictive behaviorsen_US
dc.titleAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in relation to addictive behaviors: a moderated-mediation analysis of personality-risk factors and sexen_US

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Attribution 4.0 International
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