|dc.contributor.author||Pillai Riddell, Rebecca||
|dc.identifier.citation||Hogan, M.E., Probst, J., Wong, K., Pillai Riddell, R., Katz, J., & Taddio, A. (2014). A randomized trial of tactile stimulation in infants to reduce pain from immunization. Clinical Journal of Pain, 30(3), 259-265. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318296079e.||
|dc.description.abstract||Objective: To determine the effectiveness of parent-led tactile
stimulation for pain reduction when added to a combination of
evidence-based pain-reducing interventions in infants undergoing
Methods: Healthy infants aged 4 to 6 months undergoing routine
immunization at a primary care practice were eligible. Infants were
randomized to tactile stimulation by a parent or usual care. Parents in
the tactile stimulation group rubbed the ipsilateral thigh distal to the
site for 15 seconds before, during, and after injections. In addition, all
infants received evidence-based pain-relieving interventions including:
sucrose solution, holding by a parent, and intramuscular injection
without aspiration. The primary outcome was pain, measured by a
validated tool, the Modified Behavioral Pain Scale (MBPS), by an
observer unaware of treatment allocation using videotapes of the
procedure. MBPS scores could range from 0 (no pain) to 10 (maximum
pain). Parents, unaware of the study hypothesis, also rated
infant pain in real time using a 100mm visual analogue scale.
Results: One hundred twenty infants participated. Infant characteristics
did not differ (P>0.05) between the tactile stimulation
and control groups. Mean MBPS scores and parent visual analogue
scale scores did not differ between groups (8.2 [1.1] vs. 8.0 [1.3];
P=0.57) and (60  vs. 53  mm; P=0.10), respectively.
Discussion: Parent-led tactile stimulation did not reduce pain in
infants undergoing immunization injections when combined with
other pain-relieving interventions. Potential reasons for the lack of
effectiveness are discussed. Investigation of the effectiveness of
clinician-led tactile stimulation in this population is recommended.||en_US
|dc.description.sponsorship||M-E.H. was supported during this study by a Pain In Child Health
Training Consortium award and a CIHR Frederick Banting and
Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarship—Master’s Award.
R.P.R. holds a CIHR New Investigator Award and an Ontario
Ministry of Research and Innovation Early Researcher Award.
A.T. and R.P.R. hold a research grant from Pfizer Canada Inc.
(Toronto, Canada). The remaining authors declare no conflict of
|dc.publisher||Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins||en_US
|dc.rights||This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Clinical Journal of Pain, 30(3), 259-265 (2014)||en_US
|dc.subject||immunization, pain management, infants, tactile stimulation||en_US
|dc.title||A Randomized-controlled Trial of Parent-led Tactile Stimulation to Reduce Pain During Infant Immunization Injections||