Gender and Sex Differences in Prevalence of Major Depression in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Meta-Analysis
Kovacs, Adrienne H
Stewart, Donna E
Grace, Sherry L
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Background: Depression is related to increased morbidity and mortality in the general population and among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The prevalence of major depression is two-times higher in women than men in the general population, but whether this pattern holds true in the CAD population has not been established. Objective: To test, through quantitative synthesis, whether women with CAD have a greater prevalence of major depression than men. Method: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases were searched. Authors of key articles were contacted to identify other relevant publications. The titles and abstracts were screened by the first author and the selected full-text articles were independently screened by the first and second authors based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. Major depression had to be diagnosed through structured clinical interviews during cardiac-related hospitalization or post-CAD hospitalization. Meta-analysis was undertaken using the Review Manager 5 software program. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Results: Eight eligible cohort and cross-sectional studies reporting data for 2072 participants (509 [24.6%] women) were included. Overall, major depression was observed in 95 (18.7%) women and 187 (12.0%) men. In the pooled analysis, prevalence of major depression was significantly greater in women compared to men (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval=1.21-2.58, p<.01). Heterogeneity was considered low to moderate (I2=36.0%). Conclusion: Consistent with the general population, the prevalence of major depression is two-times greater in women than men with CAD. Women with CAD may warrant greater emphasis in efforts to identify and treat depression.
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