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Antiviral Strategies for Emerging Influenza Viruses in Remote Communities

Antiviral Strategies for Emerging Influenza Viruses in Remote Communities

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Title: Antiviral Strategies for Emerging Influenza Viruses in Remote Communities
Author: Marek, Laskowski
Amy L., Greer
Seyed M., Moghadas
Abstract: Background: Due to the lack of timely access to resources for critical care, strategic use of antiviral drugs is crucial for mitigating the impact of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential in remote and isolated communities. We sought to evaluate the effect of antiviral treatment and prophylaxis of close contacts in a Canadian remote northern community.
Methods: We used an agent-based, discrete-time simulation model for disease spread in a remote community, which was developed as an in-silico population using population census data. Relative and cumulative age-specific attack rates, and the total number of infections in simulated model scenarios were obtained.
Results: We found that early initiation of antiviral treatment is more critical for lowering attack rates in a remote setting with a low population-average age compared to an urban population. Our results show that a significant reduction in the relative, age-specific attack rates due to increasing treatment coverage does not necessarily translate to a significant reduction in the overall arrack rate. When treatment coverage varies from low to moderate, targeted prophylaxis has a very limited impact in reducing attack rates and should be offered at a low level (below 10%) to avoid excessive waste of drugs.
Conclusions: In contrast to previous work, for conservative treatment coverages, our results do not provide any convincing evidence for the implementation of targeted prophylaxis. The findings suggest that public health strategies in remote communities should focus on the wider availability (higher coverage) and timely distribution of antiviral drugs for treatment of clinically ill individuals.
Sponsor: Publication was made possible by the York University Libraries' Open Access Author Fund.
Type: Article
Rights: Attribution 2.5 Canada Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Canada Attribution 2.5 Canada
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089651 www.plosone.org http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/ca/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/ca/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/ca/
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10315/27231
Published: PLoS ONE
Series: 9(2) ; York University Libraries' Open Access Author Fund
Citation: Laskowski M, Greer AL, Moghadas SM (2014) Antiviral Strategies for Emerging Influenza Viruses in Remote Communities. PLoS ONE 9(2): e89651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089651
Date: 2013-04-22

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Attribution 2.5 Canada Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 2.5 Canada