Bees collect polyurethane and polyethylene plastics as novel nest materials
MacIvor, J. Scott
Moore, Andrew E.
MetadataShow full item record
Plastic waste pervades the global landscape. Although adverse impacts on both species and ecosystems have been documented, there are few observations of behavioral flexibility and adaptation in species, especially insects, to increasingly plastic-rich environments. Here, two species of megachilid bee are described independently using different types of polyurethane and polyethylene plastics in place of natural materials to construct and close brood cells in nests containing successfully emerging brood. The plastics collected by each bee species resembled the natural materials usually sought; Megachile rotundata, which uses cut plant leaves, was found constructing brood cells out of cut pieces of polyethylene-based plastic bags, and Megachile campanulae, which uses plant and tree resins, had brood cells constructed out of a polyurethane-based exterior building sealant. Although perhaps incidentally collected, the novel use of plastics in the nests of bees could reflect ecologically adaptive traits necessary for survival in an increasingly human-dominated environment.
The following license files are associated with this item:
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/ca/
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Shrivastava, Surersh (CSME-SCGM, 2018-05)Anisotropic elastic/plastic plate bifurcation is investigated. The pre-bifurcation loading consists of biaxial stresses along ξν axes parallel to the sides of a simply supported rectangular plate: ννξξσασ=,11α−≤≤. The ξν ...
Kelly, K.R.; DeSimone, K; Gallie, B.L.; Steeves, J (NeuroImage: Clinical, 2015)Purpose Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed before 5 years of age and is often treated by enucleation (surgical removal) of the cancerous eye. Here, we sought to characterize morphological changes of the cortex following ...
Hunter, Judith P.; Katz, Joel; Davis, Karen D. (Oxford University Press, 2005)Most amputees experience phantom limb sensations and/or phantom limb pain as well as residual limb (stump) pain that are resistant to treatment. Phantom phenomena are not homogeneous; each patient presents with a unique ...