Global Demography and Foreign Policy: A Literature Brief and Call for Research
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There is almost nothing comparable in the study of identity groups and foreign policy in parliamentary democracies. What there is does not address the issue of new citizens, which in terms of the dynamics of the immigrant countries such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand is a continuous issue. Further, we must now recognize that efforts to the contrary, much of Europe will soon be facing similar challenges as they face pressures linking economic growth, labour demands and falling indigenous population increases to the pressures of becoming migrant-absorbing countries at a rate much higher than previously assumed, and from a mix of countries of origin previously not fully contemplated. In Asia, Japan faces somewhat similar pressures. This paper then is inherently exploratory rather than explanatory. We have consciously sought not to provide definitive answers to the issues raised by migration, changing demography, New Canadians, and Canadian foreign policy but rather to assess how these issues are being theorized in other contexts, what information is currently available in terms of Canada-specific and comparative data, and where important gaps in knowledge are located in terms of New Canadians and foreign policy. As such, while literatures on social integration and immigration are referenced, this paper should not be thought of as an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of this wide body of research but rather as a preliminary attempt to probe areas where research is this area may intersect with our primary issues of concern. Most importantly, this paper aims to goes beyond the typical literature brief by making a clear call for a systematic research program centred on the study of New Canadians and Canadian foreign policy including the provision of a comprehensive list of potential areas for further research.