Development and Preliminary Validation of the Child Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale in a Community Sample
Pagé, M. Gabrielle
Martin, Andrea L.
Escobar, E. Manolo Romero
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Objective To develop, and provide initial validation of, a 20-item Child Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (CPASS), a modified version of the adult 20-item Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale. Methods A community sample of children and adolescents (N = 959) aged 8–18 years completed the CPASS and measures of pain catastrophizing, anxiety sensitivity, and general anxiety. Factor structure was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Results EFA yielded a one- and a three-factor solution using 17 items of the CPASS. CFA supported a hierarchical model for both a 20-item four-factor solution (based on the adult literature) and a 20-item slightly modified four-factor solution. The CPASS showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .903) and good construct, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Conclusions This study provides support for the relevance of pain anxiety in a community sample of children and adolescents and offers preliminary validity and reliability for the CPASS.