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Infant pain-regulation as an early predictor of childhood temperament
BACKGROUND: There is considerable variability in infants’ responses to painful stimuli, including facial and vocal expressions. This variability in pain-related distress response may be an indicator of temperament ...
Variability in Infant Acute Pain Responding Meaningfully Obscured By Averaging Pain Responses
Given the inherent variability in pain responding, using an "average" pain score may pose serious threats to internal and external validity of current research findings. Using growth mixture modeling (GMM), the paper ...