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Auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces phantom limb pain
The present paper evaluates the efficacy of low frequency, high intensity auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the relief of phantom limb pain. Auricular TENS was compared with a no-stimulation ...
An association between phantom limb sensations and stump skin conductance during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to the contralateral leg: a case study
This report describes a placebo-controlled study of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to the contralateral lower leg and outer ears of an amputee with non-painful phantom sensations. The subject ...
Pain ‘memories’ in phantom limbs: review and clinical observations
This paper reviews reports of phantom limb sensations which resemble somatosensory events experienced in the limb before amputation. It also presents descriptions of this phenomenon in 68 amputees who took part in a series ...